Traumatic brain injuries range from mild to severe concussions and are distinguished by symptoms like unconsciousness, loss of memory, confusion, difficulty learning and remembering new information, trouble speaking coherently, lack of body balance and coordination, problems with vision and hearing, seizures, and vomiting. Some traumatic brain injuries may even lead to Alzheimer’s or dementia in later years. Emergency medical care should be sought as soon as possible after the incident or injury.
Musculoskeletal trauma may result in fractures, dislocations, and soft tissue injuries that cause swelling, pain, decreased sensory perception and movement, and even deformities. These are commonly treated with splinting, realignment by a medical professional, and surgery. As well, a neurovascular assessment by a doctor is necessary in order to avoid damage to nerves and blood vessels.
Damage to the spinal cord is characterized as loss of feeling below the area of injury, increased muscle tone, loss of normal bowel and bladder control, pain, and even paralysis. Immediate medical attention is warranted. Treatments with corticosteroids, surgery, physical, occupational, and rehabilitation therapy are standard.