Urine steroid hormone analysis, like saliva hormone analysis, is noninvasive and convenient to do at home. Producing a saliva sample is generally easy for most people, but conditions like dry mouth and some autoimmune diseases can make saliva collection difficult. Urine collection is therefore easier for some, although collecting urine for a full 24 hours may be inconvenient.
Urine steroid hormone analysis differs from saliva hormone testing in that it measures conjugated hormones. Conjugated hormones are hormones that the body modifies by adding a chemical – usually glucuronide or sulfate molecules – to facilitate their elimination (i.e. in urine or stool). The amount of hormone in urine essentially tells us what the body is getting rid of, not necessarily what is available for use.